# What You Need to Know About Westermann Tables 345.pdf and Why They Matter

## What are Westermann Tables?

Westermann Tables are a collection of tables that provide useful information on various materials and their properties. They are widely used by engineers, designers, technicians, students, and hobbyists who need to work with different materials and perform calculations and conversions related to them. In this article, we will explain what Westermann Tables are, how they were created, how they are organized, what types of materials they cover, how they can be used to solve practical problems, and where they can be found online.

## Westermann Tables 345.pdf

## Introduction

Westermann Tables were first published in 1936 by Ernst Westermann, a German engineer who wanted to create a comprehensive and convenient reference book for materials science. He compiled data from various sources and arranged them in tables that show the properties of different materials, such as specific weight, melting point, coefficient of linear expansion, shrinkage, hardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, etc. He also included formulas, diagrams, charts, symbols, units, abbreviations, and other useful information related to materials science.

Westermann Tables have been updated and revised several times since their first edition. The latest edition is Westermann Tables 345.pdf, which was published in 2012. It contains more than 800 pages of tables and information on over 3000 materials. It covers both ferrous and nonferrous metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, wood, glass, rubber, textiles, etc. It also includes new topics such as nanomaterials, biomaterials, smart materials, etc.

Westermann Tables are organized into four main sections: Materials Classification and Categories; General Properties of Materials; Specific Properties of Materials; and Additional Information. Each section has several subsections that group the materials according to their characteristics and applications. For example, the Materials Classification and Categories section has subsections such as Ferrous Metals; Nonferrous Metals; Plastics; Ceramics; Composites; etc. Each subsection has sub-subsections that further divide the materials into more specific categories. For example, the Ferrous Metals subsection has sub-subsections such as Iron; Steel; Cast Iron; Cast Steel; etc.

## Materials

Westermann Tables cover a wide range of materials that are used in various fields and industries. They provide detailed information on the properties of each material that can help users to select the most suitable material for their needs and purposes. They also help users to compare the properties of different materials and understand their similarities and differences.

Some of the properties that Westermann Tables show for each material are:

Specific weight: The weight per unit volume of a material (gf/cm3 or kgf/dm3).

Melting point: The temperature at which a material starts melting (C or F).

Coefficient of linear expansion: The increase in length of unit length of a material for a temperature rise of 1C or 1F.

Shrinkage: The decrease in volume of a material when it cools down from its molten state.

Hardness: The resistance of a material to indentation or scratching by another material.

Tensile strength: The maximum stress that a material can withstand before breaking when stretched.

Electrical conductivity: The ability of a material to conduct electric current.

Thermal conductivity: The ability of a material to conduct heat.

And many more.

Some of the types of materials that Westermann Tables cover are:

Ferrous metals: Metals that contain iron as their main component, such as iron, steel, cast iron, cast steel, etc.

Nonferrous metals: Metals that do not contain iron as their main component, such as copper, aluminum, zinc, tin, lead, nickel, etc.

Plastics: Synthetic or natural materials that can be molded or shaped into various forms, such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, nylon, etc.

Ceramics: Inorganic materials that are made by heating and cooling clay or other minerals, such as porcelain, glass, brick, etc.

Composites: Materials that are made by combining two or more different materials to create a new material with improved properties, such as carbon fiber, fiberglass, concrete, etc.

And many more.

## Examples

Westermann Tables can be used to solve various practical problems in engineering and design that involve working with different materials and their properties. They can help users to perform calculations and conversions related to materials science and to find the best solutions for their projects and tasks. Here are some examples of how Westermann Tables can be used:

Example 1: How much does a steel rod with a diameter of 10 mm and a length of 1 m weigh?

To answer this question, we need to find the specific weight of steel from Westermann Tables. According to the table on page 3 of Westermann Tables 345.pdf, the specific weight of steel is 7.86 gf/cm3. To convert this value to kgf/dm3, we need to multiply it by 1000. Therefore, the specific weight of steel is 7860 kgf/dm3.

To find the volume of the steel rod, we need to use the formula for the volume of a cylinder: V = pi * r2 * h, where r is the radius and h is the height. The radius of the steel rod is half of its diameter, which is 10 mm / 2 = 5 mm. The height of the steel rod is its length, which is 1 m = 1000 mm. To convert these values to dm, we need to divide them by 100. Therefore, the radius of the steel rod is 0.05 dm and the height of the steel rod is 10 dm.

Plugging these values into the formula for the volume of a cylinder, we get: V = pi * (0.05)2 * 10 = 0.0785 dm3. To find the weight of the steel rod, we need to multiply its volume by its specific weight. Therefore, the weight of the steel rod is 0.0785 dm3 * 7860 kgf/dm3 = 617 kgf.

Example 2: How much will an aluminum plate with a length of 50 cm, a width of 30 cm, and a thickness of 5 mm expand when heated from 20C to 100C?

To answer this question, we need to find the coefficient of linear expansion of aluminum from Westermann Tables. According to the table on page 4 of Westermann Tables 345.pdf, the coefficient of linear expansion of aluminum is 0.000023 C-1. This means that for every degree Celsius increase in temperature, aluminum expands by 0.000023 times its original length.

To find the original length of the aluminum plate, we need to add its length and width. The length of the aluminum plate is 50 cm and the width of the aluminum plate is 30 cm. To convert these values to m, we need to divide them by 100. Therefore, the length of the aluminum plate is 0.5 m and the width of the aluminum plate is 0.3 m. The original length of the aluminum plate is 0.5 m + 0.3 m = 0.8 m.

20C and the final temperature of the aluminum plate is 100C. The temperature change of the aluminum plate is 100C - 20C = 80C.

To find the change in length of the aluminum plate, we need to multiply its original length by its coefficient of linear expansion and by its temperature change. Therefore, the change in length of the aluminum plate is 0.8 m * 0.000023 C-1 * 80C = 0.001472 m.

To find the final length of the aluminum plate, we need to add its original length and its change in length. Therefore, the final length of the aluminum plate is 0.8 m + 0.001472 m = 0.801472 m.

To find the expansion of the aluminum plate, we need to subtract its original length from its final length. Therefore, the expansion of the aluminum plate is 0.801472 m - 0.8 m = 0.001472 m.

Example 3: What is the specific weight of a glass bottle that has a volume of 500 cm3 and a mass of 250 g?

To answer this question, we need to use the definition of specific weight, which is the weight per unit volume of a material. The weight of an object is equal to its mass times the acceleration due to gravity, which is approximately 9.81 m/s2 on Earth. The volume of an object is equal to its length times its width times its height.

To find the specific weight of the glass bottle, we need to divide its weight by its volume. To do this, we need to convert its mass and volume to consistent units. The mass of the glass bottle is 250 g and its volume is 500 cm3. To convert these values to kgf and dm3, we need to divide them by 1000 and by 1000 respectively. Therefore, the mass of the glass bottle is 0.25 kgf and its volume is 0.5 dm3.

Plugging these values into the definition of specific weight, we get: Specific weight = Weight / Volume = (0.25 kgf) / (0.5 dm3) = 0.5 kgf/dm3.

## Conclusion

In this article, we have learned what Westermann Tables are, how they were created, how they are organized, what types of materials they cover, how they can be used to solve practical problems, and where they can be found online. We have seen that Westermann Tables are a valuable resource for anyone who needs to work with different materials and their properties. They provide detailed information on over 3000 materials and their properties, such as specific weight, melting point, coefficient of linear expansion, shrinkage, hardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, etc. They also help users to perform calculations and conversions related to materials science and to find the best solutions for their projects and tasks.

Westermann Tables are a comprehensive and convenient reference book for materials science that can be accessed and downloaded online from various sources. They are also available in print format from various publishers and distributors. They are widely used by engineers, designers, technicians, students, and hobbyists who need to work with different materials and their properties.

## FAQs

Q: How accurate are Westermann Tables?

A: Westermann Tables are based on data from various sources and experiments that have been verified and validated by experts in materials science. However, they may contain some errors or inaccuracies due to measurement uncertainties or variations in material quality or conditions. Therefore, users should always check their results with other sources or methods before applying them to critical or sensitive situations.

Q: How often are Westermann Tables updated?

A: Westermann Tables are updated periodically to reflect new developments and discoveries in materials science. The latest edition is Westermann Tables 345.pdf, which was published in 2012. It contains more than 800 pages of tables and information on over 3000 materials.

Q: What are some alternatives or supplements to Westermann Tables?

A: There are many other sources and tools that can provide information on materials and their properties, such as textbooks, journals, websites, databases, software, calculators, etc. Some examples are:

ASM Handbook: A comprehensive and authoritative reference book series on materials science and engineering published by the American Society for Metals.

MatWeb: A free online database that provides information on over 140,000 materials, including metals, plastics, ceramics, composites, etc.

Engineering ToolBox: A free online resource that provides tools and information on various engineering topics, including materials, thermodynamics, mechanics, fluids, etc.

Thermal Expansion Calculator: A free online calculator that can find the thermal expansion of any object using a simple formula.

Q: How can I learn more about Westermann Tables and materials science?

A: There are many ways to learn more about Westermann Tables and materials science, such as:

Reading the introduction and the instructions of Westermann Tables 345.pdf, which explain the purpose, scope, structure, and usage of the tables.

Exploring the tables and the information on different materials and their properties in Westermann Tables 345.pdf.

Practicing solving problems and performing calculations and conversions using Westermann Tables 345.pdf.

Searching for more information and examples on materials science and engineering online or in other sources.

Taking courses or reading books on materials science and engineering.

Q: Where can I find Westermann Tables 345.pdf online?

A: Westermann Tables 345.pdf can be found online from various sources, such as:

Scribd: A digital library that hosts millions of books, documents, audiobooks, podcasts, etc. You can access Westermann Tables 345.pdf from this link:

__https://www.scribd.com/doc/117002538/Westerman-Table__

__Academia.edu__: A platform for academics to share research papers. You can access Westermann Tables 345.pdf from this link:__https://www.academia.edu/38175532/Westermann_Tables_pdf__

__vdocument.in__: A website that allows users to upload and share documents. You can access Westermann Tables 345.pdf from this link:__https://vdocument.in/westerman-table-55844b0751cd2.html__

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